Testing MKTOR Scale Properties in Serbian Exporters’ Context

  • Katarina Njegic Faculty of Business Economics and Entrepreneurship
  • Ines Djokic University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Economics in Subotica
  • Vesna Milanovic Faculty of Business and Law, "Union-Nikola Tesla" University


Research Question: This paper investigates whether the Narver and Slater’s market orientation scale (MKTOR scale) is reliable, valid and applicable in the Serbian exporters’ context. Motivation: Previous studies that examined the applicability of the MKTOR scale report inconsistent results (Matsuno, Mentzer, & Rentz 2005; Ward, Girardi, & Lewandowska, 2006; Rojas-Mendez, & Rod, 2013) and the studies that use MKTOR scale in export performance research are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to examine psychometric properties of the MKTOR scale based on the data gathered from Serbian exporters. Idea: The core idea of this paper was to empirically evaluate reliability, convergent, discriminant and nomological validity of the the MKTOR scale. Data: In order to collect data for the analysis, an on-line survey was conducted which related to the business year 2017. It involved 60 managers of exporting firms in the Republic of Serbia. Tools: The statistical methods used were exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and path analysis through partial least squares. Findings: The obtained results indicate that the original the MKTOR scale satisfies the reliability and convergent validity criteria. Since the MKTOR scale did not demonstrate adequate discriminant validity, a refined scale was proposed. The results of the research shown that the MKTOR consists of three separate components that can be used as independent measurement scales. A statistically significant positive relationship was found between market orientation measured with the MKTOR scale and the overall satisfaction with export performance, which demonstrates the nomological validity of the examined scale. The obtained results contribute to the external validation of the MKTOR scale. The results are valuable since they provide researchers from Serbia with the reliable measurement instrument that can be used for the empirical investigation of market orientation and its various influential factors. Contribution: This paper contributes to the existing literature by providing the evidence from the context in which the scale was not tested before. The paper demonstrates the usefulness of the MKTOR scale in predicting export performance. This paper expands the existing research related to the applicability of the MKTOR scale and it formulates practical suggestions of the way market orientation can be operationalized in export performance research.

Author Biographies

Katarina Njegic, Faculty of Business Economics and Entrepreneurship

Katarina (Radosavljević) Njegić is an Assistant Professor at the Faculty of Business Economics and Entrepreneurship, at the Department of Economics and Finance, where she has been emplyed since 2010. She received her bachelor's and master's degrees from the Faculty of Organizational Sciences in Belgrade, and her Ph.D. from the Faculty of International Economics (Megatrend University). Her research interests include internatinal business, strategic management, and international marketing, with the focus on firm's export performance.

Ines Djokic, University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Economics in Subotica

Ines Djokic is an Assistant Professor at Faculty of Economics in Subotica, University of Novi Sad. She teaches Marketing communications and Product Design. She is an author and co-author of a number of papers published in journals of international and national importance as well as in proceedings of international scientific conferences. She is also a member of the Serbian Marketing Association (SEMA).

Vesna Milanovic, Faculty of Business and Law, "Union-Nikola Tesla" University

Vesna Milanović graduated from the Faculty of Economics at the University of Belgrade in 1989, got her master’s degree in 1994 and her PhD degree in 2003. She worked at the Megatrend University from 1999 untill 2017. Since 2017 she has been a Full-time professor (scientific field of economics-marketing) at the Faculty of Business and Law, “Union - Nikola Tesla” University. Her research areas are marketing, international marketing, management, international business, and nanotechnology. Prof. Milanović is a researcher (project iii 45003) and she has over 100 published papers. She is a member of the Scientific Society of Economists of Serbia. She is also a member of the Association of Economists and Managers of the Balkans.

How to Cite
Njegic, K., Djokic, I., & Milanovic, V. (2020). Testing MKTOR Scale Properties in Serbian Exporters’ Context. Management:Journal Of Sustainable Business And Management Solutions In Emerging Economies, 25(1), 37-46. doi:10.7595/management.fon.2019.0011